Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the South Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres to the east. Nauru is the world’s smallest Republic, covering just 21 square kilometres. With just over 9,265 residents, it is the second least-populated country in the world.
Nauru is a 21 square kilometres, oval-shaped island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 kilometres south of the Equator. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles. The reef is bounded seaward by deep water, and on the inside by a sandy beach. The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although 16 channels in reef allow small boats access to the island. A 150 to 300 metre wide fertile coastal strip lies inland from the beach.