New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (theNorth Island and the South Island) and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga.
Due to its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long isolation New Zealand developed a distinctive fauna dominated by birds, many of which became extinct after the arrival of humans and introduced mammals. With a mild maritime climate, the land was mostly covered in forest. The country’s varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks owe much to the uplift of land and volcanic eruptions caused by the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates clashing underfoot.